Western University SociologyFaculty of Social Science

Family Transformation and Social Cohesion

Project completed: Apr 1, 2004 - Mar 31, 2007
  • Overview

  • Background

  • Studies

  • Results

  • Project Team


Family Transformation and Social Cohesion is a project funded by Canada’s Social Science and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) under its strategic grant program on the theme of Social Cohesion in Globalizing Era. It aims at understanding how families affect and are affected by social cohesion and its different dimensions and types.

The research team is composed of demographers and sociologists from the Population Studies Centre of the University of Western Ontario, the Inter-University Centre for Demographic Study (CIED) of Université de Montréal and Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS),  Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Tilburg University, and Statistics Canada, with Rod Beaujot of UWO as principal investigator.

The project includes various studies on the following themes:

  • Changing Relationship Between Men and Women, and Social Cohesion
  • Changing Relationship Between Parents and Children, and Social Cohesion
  • Inter-generational Transmissions and Acquisition of Human and Social Capital
  • Family Type, Household Sharing and Social Capital
  • Family Related Values and Social Cohesion
  • Measurement: Indicators of Family Change Relevant to Social Cohesion

To explore the linkages between family changes and social cohesion, investigators are doing analysis (some of which would be multi-level) on data from national surveys conducted by Statistics Canada, including:

  • The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth
  • The General Social Survey on the Family
  • The General Social Survey on Time Use
  • The General Social Survey on Social and Community Support
  • The National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating

The World Values Surveys, the London (Ontario) Reproduction and Caring Survey, and data from Canadian censuses and vital statistics are also utilized.

The project’s partners are federal government agencies, provincial agencies and private organizations concerned with families and children. The partnership component assures that studies have policy relevance, that results are disseminated widely, and that researchers and persons in policy positions have opportunities to interact.

Funding

The 4-year project was funded through the strategic grant program of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council on the theme of Social Cohesion in a Globalizing Era.

Researchers

Roderic Beaujot, Daniele Belanger, Thomas Burch, Rajulton Fernando, Kevin McQuillan, Zenaida Ravanera

Project Proposal

Summary

Our past research has focussed on family transformations and the associated variability of Canadian families, on dimensions such as entry, exit, division of work, composition and presence of children. A specific concern has involved the well-being of children in families, and their links with biological and informal parents. The present program of research will extend the analysis to incorporate the impact of these family transformations on social cohesion. A key consideration is the role of family relationships in human and social capital and the embeddedness of family relations in the formation of other relationships. A central methodological contribution will be the development of indicators of social cohesion, through the research in the family area.

Based on various data sets especially from Statistics Canada, the analysis will include (1) relationships between men and women, (2) relationships between parents and children, with an emphasis on non-custodial and step or informal parents, (3) inter-generational transmission of family behaviour and support, (4) family time and household sharing, (5) values associated with family and alternate family models, and (6) development of quantitative indicators of family changes relevant to social cohesion. These considerations relate to a variety of policy concerns ranging from human resources to community security, including the evolving balance of state, family and individual responsibility. With the help of a number of partners in federal and provincial government ministries, and the social advocacy sector, the links with policy will be enhanced and the results will be broadly disseminated.

Context

The last few decades, and particularly the period since the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, have seen remarkable economic and political changes at the global level. Ideologies favouring the market have prompted new linkages among peoples and states (Fukuyama, 1992). A significant concern regards the alternative forms of social cohesion. The rapidly growing literature has not yet produced a consensus on the most significant threats to social cohesion or on the most appropriate ways to address them, but these issues include polarization, inter-group conflict and civic participation (Rosell et al., 1995). These questions include family dimensions, for instance the place of family relationships in the acquisition of individual traits and social capital necessary for effective participation in the modern economy (Corak, 1998). Since family relationships are embedded in the formation of other relationships, it is important to consider the role of families in linking individuals not only to the society but also to communities, sub-groups and institutions. At stake are various institutions that have formed a buffer between the individual and the market. In particular, how will the mutuality of family, state and individual responsibilities be structured over the next twenty years (Maxwell, 1996; Cheal et al., 1998, Beaujot, 1995)?

The issues being addressed are complex, and involve various dimensions and levels of analysis. As Jenson (1998) has suggested, these issues bring us back to the problem of social order, a question that lies at the origin of the social sciences. She specifies five dimensions of cohesion that have been identified in the literature: belonging, inclusion, participation, recognition, and legitimacy. The task for researchers is to identify the determinants of these traits. The question might be posed at the individual level: what characteristics of individuals or families lead to greater social participation? Or it might be posed at the aggregate level: what features of communities produce a greater sense of legitimacy? While family transformations are often mentioned in these discussions, few analysts have pursued these links. For instance, Jenson provides a table that identifies studies at the level of the local community and whole society. It would thus appear that there are fewer studies that consider the processes of social cohesion that operate at the family level, and more generally the role of families in cohesion at the societal level.

Central to our agenda is the recognition that families themselves are now a site of considerable diversity in Canadian society. Families have changed in several aspects: family formation (rise in rates of cohabitation), family dissolution (formerly through spousal death and home-leaving of children, now more through separation), family types (lone-parent and reconstituted families; same sex couples), presence of children (including step-children, informal parenting, and various forms of custody), family division of labour (participation in paid and unpaid work), family values (individualization). These changes are happening across the industrialized world and have been referred to as a second demographic transition (Lesthaeghe and van de Kaa, 1986), and the emerging families as 'post-modern' (Shorter, 1977; Jones et al., 1990) or 'new' families (Goldscheider and Waite, 1991). This change means that various models of families co-exist, and we need to appreciate the dynamics of cohesion across these alternatives. It is important, in particular, to observe ways in which there is a unity of interest and conflicts of interest, between men and women, adults and children, within the various types of families, and how the underlying relations among people can be a source of dynamism in society, moving toward alternate forms of cohesion.

The links between family questions and social cohesion are relevant to various issues that are discussed in the literature, including several issues of policy relevance. The Canadian Policy Research Sub-Committee on Social Cohesion has identified three themes in its research framework: (1) fault lines, (2) axes of community identification, and (3) implications of changes in social cohesion (PRI, 1997 and 1999). On the first theme of 'fault lines', for example, the study of changes, determinants, and variations in family and household structures, household division of labour, family formation and dissolution, inter-generational relations, and life courses can contribute to the understanding of the effects of contemporary diversity on human and social capital (Putnam, 1995; Coleman, 1990; Hall and Lindholm, 1999; Astone et al., 1999). Similarly, on the theme 'axes of community identification', the proposed project can contribute to the understanding of evolving values (in particular those pertaining to families, children, gender, and alternate family models) in Canada and in comparison with those of other countries. On the last theme of implications of changes in social cohesion', the role of family questions can be studied as potential determinants of attachment and belonging.

Research Plan

Our past research has especially focussed on family transformations and the associated variability of Canadian families along with some of their implications for the well-being of family members (Péron et al. 1999; Beaujot et al. 1995). The present program of research will extend the analysis to incorporate the impact of these family transformations on social cohesion. The analysis will include (1) relationships between men and women, (2) relationships between parents and children, with an emphasis on non-custodial and step or informal parents, (3) inter-generational transmission of family behaviour and support, and (4) family time and household sharing. Each of these analyses will include a focus on the role of family questions in the acquisition of human and social capital. We will also study (5) values associated with family and alternate family models. Through the course of the project we will (6) develop quantitative indicators of family changes relevant to social cohesion, and (7) seek to integrate the research development and results with policy concerns through exchanges between researchers and partners. Quebec family questions will also be explicitly taken into account because of the originality of its family policy.

From the methodological point of view, the life course approach and event history analysis will be favoured (Elder, 1985; George, 1993; Tuma and Hannan, 1984). The longitudinal perspective puts the emphasis on the individual trajectories determined by various sequences of interrelated family events; the diversification of these sequences constitutes one of the most fundamental sources of family change (Ravanera et al., 1998a). The principal sources of data will be: the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, the General Social Surveys on Family and Friends, on Time-use, and on Social and Community Support, the National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, the Work Accommodations Survey, World Values Survey, and the European Family and Fertility Surveys. The following themes and questions will be pursued:

1. Family Changes, Changing Relationships Between Men and Women, and Social Cohesion

In the recent decades, the changing nature of conjugal unions (Burch and Bélanger, 1999), both in terms of type of formation and union stability, has been associated with the evolution of the relationship between men and women. Three questions arise: in a context where women benefit from access to education and labour market opportunity, can conjugal relationships lead to interdependence and trust between spouses as the traditional marriage did? In a context where economic opportunity has been reduced for young people, particularly for less educated young men, are relationships between men and women driven toward a new equilibrium where both spouses' involvement in work becomes necessary for the formation and the stability of the union (Oppenheimer, 1994; Neill and Le Bourdais, 2000)? From now on, couples establish ties that seem to be more fragile, more often based on the sole value of their capacity to provide self-development and happiness, and less on a commitment guarded by an institutional framework (Lapierre-Adamcyk et al., 1997; Roussel, 1993). Can the solidarity of conjugal partners be reinforced in these new family forms? Moreover, these questions are raised in a context of the women's attempt to change the balance in the division of caring and domestic activities between themselves and their spouses, a theme further developed in (4) below.

2. Family Changes, Changing Relationships Between Parents and Children, and Social Capital

Marital instability, undoubtedly, has consequences for children (Marcil-Gratton et Le Bourdais, 1999; Beaujot, 1999; McQuillan, 1992; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). Of particular significance are the circumstances that will favour the maintenance of the father and child relationship, contributing to the child's psycho-social development and hence of human capital (Desrosiers and Le Bourdais, 1997). Another aspect of marital instability is related to the recomposition of the family: what are the adjustments that a child has to make between biological parents and their new partners who become informal or step parents? How do the properties of various kinds of families promote the growth of social capital for their members. How do various family types differ in social participation and linking with institutions. These questions can shed light on how family changes affect the acquisition of human and social capital, which are resources essential to the growth of social cohesion on a society-wide level.

3. Intergenerational Transmissions and Acquisition of Social and Human Capital

These studies would include the transmission of demographic behaviours from one generation to the next, and the nature of transfers across generations. For instance, to what extent does family instability experienced in childhood affect the likelihood of young adults to create subsequent family instability (Le Bourdais and Marcil-Gratton, 1998). Second, is the transformation toward alternate family models a function of changing relative opportunities available to young men and women at the family building stage of the life course (Mitchell, 1994; Ravanera et al., 1998b). Third, to what extent the delay the younger generations are experiencing in leaving home, starting families, having children, is part of a family strategy that is dependent on a stronger transfer from parents to children. (Côté and Allahar, 1994; Corak, 1998; Boyd and Norris, 1998; Gee et al., 1995; Ravanera, 1995; Lapierre-Adamcyk et al., 1995). Consequently, to what extent is the parental investment in children a basis for subsequent mutuality with the older generation, and a basis for social cohesion across generations (Stone, Rosenthal, and Connidis, 1998; Rajulton and Ravanera, 1999).

4. Family time, Household Sharing and Social Capital

Time use data permit the study of "family time" or the time that family members spend together and how this family time is competing with other activities, including professional work (Lapierre-Adamcyk and Marcil-Gratton, 1995). This can be approached from two points of view: in terms of level of contact between family members and the organization of time. In particular, conjugal changes have altered the level of contact that children maintain with both their biological and step-parents (Marcil-Gratton and Le Bourdais, 1999), including the time children may share between different households. In terms of the organization of time, families can be considered as environments where people with competing activities come together. This is particularly true for spouses, because the process of change in the women's role is advancing rapidly (Chesnais, 1987). Having reached equal opportunity in education, and progressing quickly in the labour force, women are facing a third stage, "equal opportunity in daily life" that involves the largest potential for a conflict of interest between men and women, especially around the division of domestic and caring activities (Le Bourdais and Sauriol, 1998). Gender questions are clearly related to family time and alternative models of social cohesion at the family level (McQuillan and Belle, 1998; Beaujot and Haddad, 1999). For instance, is the sense of solidarity and the potential for co-parenting increased by a more balanced sharing of domestic tasks?

5. Family Related Values and Social Cohesion

The World Values Survey, the Family and Fertility Surveys and various cycles of the General Social Survey, permit an analysis of changing values associated with family questions. Questions of interest include the relative value placed on relationships, children and other life priorities, along with the types of relationships that are preferred between men and women, between adults and children (Lesthaeghe and Moors, 1995; Balakrishnan et al., 1993; Lapierre-Adamcyk et al., 1999). How does Canada compare with West European countries in terms of both family values and behaviours (Ravanera et al., 1999; Nevitte, 1996)? Does that tell us something about social cohesion mechanisms that could be common to various societies?

6. Measurement: Indicators of Family Change Relevant to Social Cohesion

Linkages will be developed between the indicators of family change and the indicators of social cohesion, and in particular, their mutual impact. Thus one can explore how the transformation toward alternate family models will influence cohesion both at the family and societal levels. Particular attention will be paid to the possibility of merging information from censuses and cross-sectional surveys with that from the on-going major longitudinal) surveys in Canada. The concepts of social cohesion (and social capital) can be measured at the micro, meso and macro levels. Drawing upon the experience accumulated from social indicators research as well as from the attempts made by European researchers on social cohesion (European Commission, 1995), part of this project's contribution will be to bring quantitative data to bear on questions raised under different themes discussed above. At the macro level, for example, various indicators can be considered ranging from availability of care facilities, family fiscal measures, working conditions to employment opportunities. From the research themes presented earlier, the indicators at the family or meso level could include measures based on the individual life course trajectories, measures of family time, and measures of the family network and support (Toulemon and Lapierre-Adamcyk, forthcoming). At the micro level, unemployment and migration status have been found to be crucial factors in studying social cohesion (Fassman, 1995). All these measures will be examined in relation to the five dimensions of cohesion identified by Jenson (1998).

Team and Collaborations

The research team initially groups demographers and sociologists from the University of Western Ontario (Roderic Beaujot, Danièle Bélanger, Thomas Burch, Kevin McQuillan, Rajulton Fernando) and the Centre interuniversitaire d'études démographiques (Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Céline Le Bourdais, Nicole Marcil-Gratton) of the Université de Montreal and Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique. As the two leading demography groups in the country, we have had various professional relationships, including cooperating on a Canadian Fertility Survey in the mid-1980s (Balakrishnan, Lapierre-Adamcyk and Krotki, 1993). Other joint activity has involved the sharing of analytic tools for event history analysis, and providing advice to Statistics Canada, especially in regard to Cycle 5 of the General Social Survey on "Family and Friends". The specific members of the two groups that are part of this proposal have a common interest in family questions. The group from Montreal has just published a major census monograph on families entitled Les familles canadiennes à l'approche de l'an 2000 (Péron, Desrosiers, Juby, Lapierre-Adamcyk, Le Bourdais, Marcil-Gratton and Mongeau, 1999). The University of Western Ontario group has published a study in the Current Demographic Analysis series of Statistics Canada entitled Family over the Life Course (Beaujot, Gee, Rajulton, and Ravanera, 1995) and the principal investigator is publishing a synthetic book entitled Earning and Caring in Canadian Families (Beaujot, 1999). The present proposal will support the continuation of this research, with a specific focus on questions of social cohesion, along with further cooperation both between the two groups and with associated partners. From an international perspective, the research team benefits from the collaboration of Ron Lesthaeghe and Guy Moors of Vrije Universiteit in Brussels who will provide a link to the World Values Survey and the European Family and Fertility Surveys, along with a continuing professional relationship that for some date back to student days. The team also includes Pierre Turcotte and Derrick Thomas of the Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division at Statistics Canada. Previous relationships with these demographers at Statistics Canada include co-authorships, participation on advisory groups regarding data collection, and discussions of social indicators. Zenaida Ravanera of Western's Population Studies Centre will be a research associate. As can be seen from the vitae, the team has strong bilingual competence.

Training

The researchers have a strong record of including graduate students and post-doctoral students in their research activities. The Université de Montréal and the University of Western Ontario, along with the University of Alberta, have formed the next generation of demographers in Canada. This has included various opportunities for research apprenticeship and co-authorship, and it has focussed on a strong empirical component, along with techniques for demographic analysis and methods and statistics for social research. Many of the more recent students have become adept at event history analysis, and longitudinal analysis is now being incorporated. At Statistics Canada, the involvement of students includes summer employment opportunities and the hiring of graduates from both programs. There is a mutual interest in taking advantage of survey data from Statistics Canada and ensuring that subsequent rounds of these various surveys capture the questions of substantive interest with appropriate methodologies. The opportunity for experience with these data sets is invaluable for social scientist students who are subsequently employed in research and policy positions.

The present proposal includes one post-doctoral student (Ghyslaine Neill) and one junior researcher (Heather Juby) at the Centre interuniversitaire d'études démographiques. Each year, the budget also envisages support for two students over the whole year and three students in the summer term. We have already circulated the grant proposal with students, encouraging their selection of related thesis topics. As in the past, students will be involved in both research and dissemination.

Partnership Component

The proposal includes a total of eight partners: two advocacy organizations, four federal government departments, and two provincial agencies. Members of the team have substantial previous exchanges with all but one of the partner organizations, through workshops, advisory committees, data and research. The attached letters indicate the contributions the partners will make, and the benefits they expect. The Canadian Policy Research Network and the Vanier Institute on the Family provide a meeting ground for other social advocates, along with officials and people who are in the front line of program delivery. Besides the common interest in family questions, CPRN has made various contributions to the social cohesion theme. At Human Resources Development Canada an overriding concern is to monitor social and economic changes and establish structures that enable families to produce productive workers and participant citizens. At the Department of Justice the related concerns range from child support structures, to establishing safe communities where people feel connected and safe by having common expectations. The Policy Research Secretariate is attentive to the long term, and it specifically serves as a secretariate to the Social Cohesion Network across federal ministries. The two provincial ministries will provide entry at the provincial level and alternate models for achieving similar objectives. The Quebec Conseil de la famille et de l'enfance is mandated to counsel the Quebec government on all questions relating to families and children. The Ontario Children's Secretariate at Community and Social Services are especially focussing on community-level structures. This follows on the McCain and Mustard report (1999) which points to variations in social cohesion as an explanation for the weak direct statistical relationship between low income and measures of child disadvantage.

The link with Statistics Canada is largely in terms of data, while with the other partners it is in terms of defining the research and policy questions. The government departments ensure contact with policy makers and with the public that they are seeking to serve, and they benefit from contact with researchers. A workshop is planned for Spring 2000 that would bring the researchers and partners together in order to share past research, insights into data sets, policy concerns and guide the specific research activities. Another workshop is planned two years later to review the significant findings that will emerge and discuss policy implications. This workshop will include a policy analyst who will be commissioned to synthesise findings and show policy links. Participation at these workshops along with a newsletter and other occasions to exchange views will ensure continued involvement of the partners, and dissemination of results beyond academic circles. The involvement of partners will be structured through an Advisory Committee including one representative from each partner. When important management decisions need to be made, a smaller Executive Committee will be convened, consisting of Kevin McQuillan (Chair, Sociology, UWO), Céline Le Bourdais (Coordinator, Centre Interuniversitaire), Allen Zeesman (Director, Income Security, HRDC), Nicole Boily (Conseil de la famille et de l'enfance), and Roderic Beaujot (ex officio). The Executive Committee will play a role of ongoing monitoring, but especially approval of any changes in design.

Communication and Dissemination Plans

Besides the two workshops, newsletter and policy synthesis indicated above, we will have a conference late in the cycle, possibly coordinated with other successful teams in the Social Cohesion application. There will be various other occasions to make presentations and interact with the media. These will take advantage of specific activities involving the partners or third parties. Partners will also disseminate related items in their own newsletters. As in the past, we will also seek to publish in various journals, including Canadian Public Policy, Policy Options, the English and French sociology and demography journals, and a new theme-based policy journal being established by the Policy Research Secretariate.

Dissemination to non-academic audiences:

Various members of the team have frequent exposure in the media, in particular Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Céline Le Bourdais, and Roderic Beaujot. The partner letters speak extensively about the potential for dissemination of research results and opportunities for discussion of policy implications. As seen these letters, the partners will be interested to have our research and results disseminated at various occasions as they arise. The policy-directed synthesis, which will be commissioned in the third year, will help enhance exposure to various audiences. The newsletter and web address will be distributed to interested parties, including those who may reach us through the partners. We will also seek to coordinate with the other successful applications on the social cohesion competition.

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Rajulton, Fernando and Zenaida R. Ravanera. 1999. Life Course Trajectories Before and After Retirement. Paper presented at the 1999 Annual Conference of the Canadian Population Society, Sherbrooke, Quebec. UWO Population Studies Center Discussion Paper 99-7.

Ravanera, Zenaida R. 1995. A Portrait of the Family Life of Young Adults. In J. Dumas (ed), Family Over the Life Course. Current Demographic Analysis Series, Statistics Canada (Cat. No. 91-543E). Ottawa: 7-35.

Ravanera, Zenaida R., Hwa Young Lee, Fernando Rajulton, Byung-Yup Cho. 1999. Should a Second Demographic Transition Follow the First? Demographic Contrasts: Canada and South Korea. Social Indicators Research 47(1): 99-118

Ravanera, Zenaida R., Fernando Rajulton, and Thomas K. Burch. 1998a. Early Life Transitions of Canadian Women: A Cohort Analysis of Timing, Sequences, and Variations. European Journal of Population 14: 179-204.

Ravanera, Zenaida R., Fernando Rajulton and Thomas K. Burch. 1998b. Trends and Variations in the Early Life Courses of Canadian Men. Paper presented at the 1998 Annual Conference of the Canadian Population Society, Ottawa. UWO Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper 98-7.

Rosell, Steven A. et al. 1995. Changing Maps: Governing in a World of Rapid Change. Ottawa: Carleton University Press.

Roussel, Louis. 1987. "Deux decennies de mutations demographiques (1965-1985) dans les pays industrializés." Population 42(3): 429-48.

Roussel, Louis. 1993.  Fécondité et famille, dans Actes de la Conférence européenne sur la population, Commission économique des Nations Unies pour l'Europe, Conseil de l'Europe, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la population, vol. 1, p. 39-120.

Shorter, Edward. 1977. The Making of the Modern Family. New York: Basic Books.

Stone, Leroy O., Carolyn Rosenthal, and Ingrid Connidis. 1998. Parent-Child Exchanges of Supports and Intergenerational Equity. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, cat. no. 89-557.

Toulemon, L. et É. Lapierre-Adamcyk. (forthcoming). Demographic Patterns of Fatherhood and Motherhood in France, in Caroline Bledsoe (ed.), Male Fertility in the Era of Fertility Decline, Oxford University Press.

Tuma, Nancy Brandon and Michael T. Hannan. 1984. Social Dynamics: Models and Methods. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, Inc.

Studies Included

Giving & Social Cohesion
Rod Beaujot and Zenaida R. Ravanera

Child Development Outcomes in Non-Intact Families
Rod Beaujot, Zenaida R. Ravanera and Fernando Rajulton

Reproduction & Caring over the Life Course 
Rod Beaujot and Beverly Matthews

Children, Custody and Outcomes: Some Cross-cultural Comparisons
Rod Beaujot

Household Cohesion, Distance from Kin, and Marginality from Kin Networks
Thomas K. Burch and Danièle Bélanger

Family Changes and Transfers to Children: A Focus on Children with Lone Parents, 1971-96
Don Kerr

Work Patterns and The Quality of Family Life
Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Céline Le Bourdais, and Nicole Marcil-Gratton

Inter-generational Transmission of Socio-demographic Behaviours
Céline Le Bourdais, Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Nicole Marcil-Gratton and Pierre Turcotte

The World Values Surveys: Relationships Between Values and Dimensions of Social Cohesion
Ron Lesthaeghe and Guy Moors

The Division of Labour and Intra-family Cohesion
Kevin McQuillan

Family Living and Entry of Children into the Workforce
Kevin McQuillan

Social Cohesion Across Generations
Fernando Rajulton

Indicators of Family Change and Social Cohesion
Fernando Rajulton

Youth and Social Cohesion: Values, Time Use, Giving and Transitions
Zenaida R. Ravanera

Socio-demographic Changing Conditions of Separating Parents and Their Impact on Children’s Economic Well-being
Louise Savage, Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Céline Le Bourdais, Nicole Marcil-Gratton, and Pierre Turcotte

Economic Rationalization, Social Cohesion, and the Ecology of Suicide and Divorce in Canada
Derrick Thomas

Determinants of Lone Parenthood
Pierre Turcotte, Céline Le Bourdais

Publications

Book

Canada's Changing Families -coverThe results of this project have been published in a book, Canada's Changing Families: Implications for Individuals and Society, edited by Kevin McQuillan and Zenaida R. Ravanera.

The first part of the book examines changes in families and their relation to child-bearing, work patterns, and transitions to adulthood. The contributions include Transformed Families and the Basis for Childbearing by Roderic Beaujot and Ali Muhammad; A Balancing Act: Parents' Work Arrangements and Family Time by Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Nicole Marcil-Gratton and Céline Le Bourdais; Parental Time, Work Schedules and Changing Gender Roles by  Benoît Rapoport and Céline Le Bourdais; and, Delayed Life Transitions: Trends and Implications by Roderic Beaujot.

The second section looks at how Canadian children have been affected by family transformation, and starts with The Evolving Family Living Arrangements of Canada's Children: Consequences for Child Poverty and Child Outcomes by Don Kerr. Karen Mac Con's contribution, The Impact of Family Context on Adolescent Emotional Health during the Transition to High School, is based on her Ph. D. thesis that she successfully defended in the spring of 2004, with the supervision of Rajulton Fernando. Two other contributions that examined the relation between family changes and the bringing up of children are: Intergenerational Transfer: The Impact of Parental Separation on Young Adults' Conjugal Behaviour by Claudine Provencher, Céline Le Bourdais and Nicole Marcil-Gratton ; and Single Parenthood and Labour Force Participation: The Effect of Social Policies by Nancy Meilleur and Évelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk.

The final section consists of a contribution that examines family cohesion, Family Solidarity in Canada: An Exploration with the General Social Survey on Family and Community Support by Fernando Rajulton and Zenaida R. Ravanera; and a chapter that examines integration, Social Integration over the Life Course: Influences of Individual, Family, and Community Characteristics also by Ravanera and Fernando.

Papers

2003, J. Liu and D. Kerr, "Family Change and the Economic Well-being in Canada: The Case of Recent Immigrant Families with Children"

2003, P. Beaupré, P. Turcotte, A. Milan, M. Declos, and C. Le Bourdais, "Junior is Still at Home: Trends and Determinants in Home Leaving in Canada" Junior is still at home: Trends and determinants in parental homeleaving in Canada. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Canadian Population Society, Dalhousie University, Halifax, June 2003.

     abstract
Using both the 2001 census and the 2001 General Social Survey on the Family, this study looks at recent trends in the dynamics of home leaving and returning in Canada. The study also assess the socio-economic factors influencing home leaving or returning, including family origins, level of schooling, school attendance, labour force participation, region of residence, language, and other factors.

F. Rajulton, Z. R. Ravanera, and R. Beaujot, "How Cohesive are Canadian CMAs?: A Measure of Social Cohesion Using the National Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating"

2003, J. Billette and C. Le Bourdais, "Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of the Timing  of First Birth in Canada: A Comparison by Sex"

     abstract
Using data drawn from the 1995 General Social Survey, this paper explores to what extent the decision of having a first child between ages 18-35 relies on a different set of factors for men and women. Results reveal that socio-economic factors differentially influence men and women. Completion of studies seems important for women whereas work status appears to be a key factor for men. Analysis of interactions between both these variables and birth cohort shows that the impact of socio-economic characteristics evolved through time for both sexes.

2003, Z. R. Ravanera and F. Rajulton, "Integration at Mid-Life: An Analysis of the General Social Surveys on Time Use"

2003, R. Beaujot and Z.R. Ravanera, "Relative Participation of Men and Women in Paid and Unpaid Work: An Analysis of Variations by Individual, Family and Community Characteristics"

2003, Z.R. Ravanera and R. Fernando, "Fertility of Canadian Men: Levels, Trends, and Correlates"

2003, R. Beaujot, "Demographics and the Changing Canadian Family"

2003, H. Juby, C. Le Bourdais, and N. Marcil-Gratton, "Before Separation and After: the Link Between Family Characteristics and Custody Arrangements"

     abstract
Until recently, most analyses of fathers' involvement with children after separation drew on characteristics of already separated mothers or fathers to explain observed variations. Panel data from consecutive cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth make it possible to take a new approach, exploring how the characteristics of couples in "intact" families influence decisions made about custody and visiting arrangements when they separate. This paper tests how pre-separation income, parents' labour-force involvement and other characteristics (including education, union type, number, age and sex of children) influence how separating parents organize their children's living arrangements.

2003, P. Turcotte and V. Renaud, "Same-Sex Relationships and Sexual Orientation in Canada: Data, Concepts, and Methodological Issues"

     abstract
Recent developments in family settings and living arrangement, and their impact on the societal and legal recognition of these phenomenon, have challenged theories of family behaviors and have resulted in variety of new data needs. In Canada, changes to both federal and provincial legislation resulted in the collection of the first ever national estimates of same-sex relationships. This paper presents results from the 2001 Canadian Census on same-sex relationships. Comparisons are made with data from other countries, including the United States.

2003, F. Rajulton and Z. R. Ravanera, Impact of Individual, Family, and Community Characteristics on Inter-Generational Support: An Analysis of the 1996 General Social Survey on Social and Community Support

     abstract
Types of family cohesion are constructed using three dimensions of inter-generational relationships: (a) affinity that essentially comprises emotional closeness; (b) opportunity structure that refers to frequency of contact and residential proximity; and (c) functional exchange that refers to flows of various kinds of instrumental support among family members. Using these dimensions and data on family support, this paper shows that Canadians belong mostly to either one of 4 types: detached, functional, obligatory, and tight-knit. It also examines the variations in inter-generational relationships by individual, family, and community characteristics using binary and multinomous logistic regressions in the framework of structural equation modeling.

2003, R. Beaujot, "The Effect of Immigration on the Canadian Population: Replacement Migration?"

2002, J. Surkyn and R. Lesthaeghe, PDF "Values Orientations and the Second Demographic Transition (SDT) in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe: An Update"

2002, Z. R. Ravanera, R. Beaujot and F. Rajulton, "The Family and Political Dimension of Social Cohesion: Analyzing the Link Using the 2000 National Survey on Giving, Volunteering and Participating"

2002, B. Rapoport and C. Le Bourdais, PDF "Parental Time and Working Schedules"

2002, N. Marcil-Gratton, C. Le Bourdais and É. Lapierre-Adamcyk, in collaboration with P.M. Huot, PDF "The Couple - Part II – Parental Separation in Early Childhood : A Preliminary Investigation"

2002, Z. R. Ravanera, F. Rajulton and T. K. Burch, "Effects of Community and Family Characteristics on Early Life Transitions of Canadian Youth"

2002, W. Omariba, PDF "Social Cohesion in Europe: A Bibliography"

2002, R. Beaujot, PDF "Family Transformation and Social Cohesion: Brief Statement of the Public Policy Implications of Our Research"

2001, C. Le Bourdais, H. Juby and N. Marcil-Gratton, PDF "Keeping Contact with Children: Assessing the Father/Child Post-Separation Relationship from the Male Perspective"

2001, R. Beaujot and J. Liu, "Children, Social Assistance and Outcomes: Cross-national Comparisons"

2001, D. Kerr, "Family Transformations and the Well-being of Children: Recent Evidence from Canadian Longitudinal Data"

2001, Z. R. Ravanera and F. Rajulton, "Integration at Late Life: Inclusion, Participation, and Belonging among the Elderly"

2001, R. Beaujot and J. Liu, "Models of Earning and Caring: Evidence from Canadian Time-Use Data"

2001, F. Rajulton and Z.R. Ravanera, "Intergenerational Support and Family Cohesion"

2001, Z.R. Ravanera, F. Rajulton and P. Turcotte, "Youth Integration, Social Cohesion, and Social Capital: An Analysis of the General Social Surveys on Time Use", published in 2003 Youth & Society 35(2):158

2001, B. Rapoport et C. Le Bourdais, PDF "Temps parental et formes familiales"

2001, H. Juby, C. Le Bourdais and N. Marcil-Gratton, PDF "A Step Further: Parenthood in Blended Families"

2001, D. Kerr and R. Beaujot, "Family Relations, Low Income and Child Outcomes: A Comparison of Canadian Children in Intact, Step, and Lone Parent Families"

2001, D. Kerr and R. Beaujot, "Child Poverty and Family Structure in Canada, 1981-1997"

2001, R. Beaujot and A. Belanger, "Perspectives on Below Replacement Fertility in Canada: Trends, Desires, and Accommodations"

2001, R. Beaujot, "Earning and Caring: Demographic Change and Policy Implications"

2001, R. Beaujot and Z. R. Ravanera, "An Interpretation of Family Change, With Implications for Social Cohesion"

2000, N. Marcil-Gratton, C. Le Bourdais and E. Lapierre-Adamcyk, PDF "The Implications of Parents' Conjugal Histories for Children"

2000, R. Lesthaeghe and G. Moors, PDF "Life Course Transitions and Value Orientations: Selection and Adaptation"

2000, D. Kerr and A. Bélanger, PDF "Family/Demographic Change and the Economic Well-Being of Preschool Age Children in Canada, 1981-1997"

2000, Z. R.Ravanera, PDF "Family Transformation and Social Cohesion: Project Overview and Integrative Framework"

2000, Z. R. Ravanera, PDF "Annotated Bibliography: Family Transformation and Social Cohesion"

Papers presented at Workshops and Conferences

2003 Congress for the Social Sciences and Humanities - 2003 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Population Society

Pascale Beaupré, Pierre Turcotte, Anne Milan, Manon Declos, and Céline Le Bourdais, "Junior is Still at Home: Trends and Determinants in Home Leaving in Canada"

Zenaida R. Ravanera and Fernando Rajulton, "Integration of Canadians at Mid-Life"

Jianye Liu and Don Kerr, "Family Change and the Economic Well-being in  Canada: The Case of Recent Immigrant Families with Children"

Roderic Beaujot, "The Effect of Immigration on the Canadian Population: Replacement Migration"

Jean-Michel Billette and Céline Le Bourdais, "Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of the Timing of First Birth in Canada: A Comparison by Sex"

2003 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sociology and Anthropology

Roderic Beaujot and Zenaida R. Ravanera, "Relative Participation of Men and Women in Paid and Unpaid Work: An Analysis of Variations by Individual, Family, and Community Characteristics"

Fernando Rajulton, Zenaida R. Ravanera and Roderic Beaujot, "How Cohesive are Canadian CMAs?: A Measure of Social Cohesion Using the National Survey of Giving. Volunteering, and Participating"

Statistics Canada 2003 Economic Conference

Fernando Rajulton, Zenaida R. Ravanera and Roderic Beaujot, "How Cohesive are Canadian CMAs?: A Measure of Social Cohesion Using the National Survey of Giving. Volunteering, and Participating"

2003 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America

Heather Juby, Celine Le Bourdais, and Nicole Marcil-Gratton, "Before Separation and After: the Link Between Family Characteristics and Custody Arrangements"

Pierre Turcotte and Viviane Renaud, Same-Sex Relationships and Sexual Orientation in Canada: Data, Concepts, and Methodological Issues

Zenaida R. Ravanera and Fernando Rajulton, "Fertility of Canadian Men: Levels, Trends, and Correlates"

Fernando Rajulton and Zenaida R. Ravanera, "Impact of Individual, Family, and Community Characteristics on Inter-Generational Support: An Analysis of the 1996 General Social Survey on Social and Community Support"

2002 Congress for the Social Sciences and Humanities - 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association

Rod Beaujot gave the John Porter Lecture at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association. The lecture was based on his book Earning and Caring in Canadian Families, winner of the 2001 CSAA Porter Award.

Rod Beaujot, Canadian Population Society Presidential Address: "Projecting the Future of Canada's Population: Assumptions, Implications, and Policy"

Zenaida R. Ravanera, Rod Beaujot and Fernando Rajulton, "The Family and Political Dimension of Social Cohesion: Analyzing the Link Using the 2000 National Survey on Giving, Volunteering and Participating"

Zenaida R. Ravanera, Fernando Rajulton and Pierre Turcotte, "Youth Integration and Social Capital: An Analysis of the Canadian General Social Surveys on Time Use"

Time Pressure, Work-Family Interface, and Parent-Child Relationships: Social & Health Implications of Time Use

Céline Le Bourdais and B. Rapoport, "Parental Time and Working Schedules"

Colloque de l'Association des démographes du Québec (ADQ)

Céline Le Bourdais, Heather Juby, and Nicole Marcil-Gratton, "Du passé conjugal des parent au devenir familial des enfants"

Population Association of America (PAA) 2002 Annual Meeting

Ron Lesthaeghe and Johan Surkyn, "New Patterns of Household Formation in Eastern and Central Europe: Economic Crisis or Ideational Shift?"

Fran Goldscheider and Pierre Turcotte, "The Other Partner: The Changing Role of "Good Provider" in Men's Union Formation Patterns in Industrialized Countries"

Zenaida R. Ravanera, Fernando Rajulton, and Thomas K. Burch, "Effects of Community and Family Characteristics on Early Life Transitions on Canadian Youth"

Social Cohesion (SOCO) Follow-up Workshop (Feb 2002)

Rod Beaujot, Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk and Zenaida R. Ravanera attended theSocial Cohesion follow-up workshop held at Lord Elgin Hotel in Ottawa onFebruary 15-16, 2002. The workshop was participated in by representativesfrom the government and 15 research projects on the strategic area of"Social Cohesion in a Globalizing Era" funded by the Social Scienceand Humanities Research Council.

Rod Beaujot presented: "Family Transformation and Social Cohesion: Brief statement of the public policy implications of our research"

Human Resources and Development Canada (HRDC) Conference (Jan 30-Feb 1, 2002)

Heather Juby andNicole Marcil-Gratton presented: "It's All in the Past: Exploring the Repercussions of Parents' Early Conjugal and Parental Histories on the Family Life Course of Their Children"

Federation of Canadian Demographers (FCD) Meeting:  Demographic Futures in the Context of Globalization: Public Policy Issues (Dec 2001)

Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Celine Le Bourdais, and Nicole Marcil-Gratton, "Time for Work and Time for Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Behaviours in a Changing Economy"

Don Kerr, "Family Transformations and Well-Being of Children: Recent Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Children and Youth"

Roderic Beaujot and  Jianye Liu, "Children, Social Assistance and Outcomes: Cross-national Comparisons"

Zenaida R. Ravanera and Fernando Rajulton, "Integration at Late Life: Inclusion, Participation, and belonging among the Elderly"

Canadian Centre for Studies of Children at Risk, McMaster University (Oct 12, 2001)

Don Kerr, "Child Outcomes in Lone Parent, Step Parent and Two Parent Households: 1994-1998"

Rod Beaujot, "Transfers to Children in One-parent, Two-parent and Step Families: Theoretical Questions"

24th General Population Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) (Aug 18-24, 2001)

Beaujot and J. Liu, "Models of Earning and Caring: Evidence from Canadian Time-Use Data"

D. Kerr, R. Beaujot, and F. Rajulton, "Family Relations, Low Income and Child Outcomes"

Policy Research Initiative (PRI) Consultation on Social Cohesion (Aug 2, 2001)

As part of its consultative process concerning social cohesion, the PRI held a Forum with Researchers and Community Organizations in Ottawa on August 2, 2001. Among the questions addressed in the forum were: (1) What are the pressing issues on the horizon which could be addressed within the rubric of social cohesion? (2) What are the key elements / variables in a social cohesion approach to those issues? (3) How can the different sectors work together? Zenaida R. Ravanera  participated in the forum in behalf of the project.

Family Transformation and Social Cohesion Second Workshop (Jun 14-15, 2001)

The Family Transformation and Social Cohesion team held its second workshop in Ottawa on June 14-15, 2001. The program of activities included a review of the past year, a series of presentations and discussions of studies done by the researchers, and a summing up and planning for the next year. Workshop Summary

The Second Demographic Transition in Europe
EuroConference on Family and Fertility Change in Modern European Societies: Explorations of Recent Developments

Johan René Surkyn and Ron Lesthaeghe presented a paper "ValuesProfiles and Household Formation: An Update of Trends" in the conferencethat held in Bad Herrenalb, Germany on June 23-28.

Statistics Canada's  Economic Conference 2001
Economic and Social Trends in a Dynamic Economy

Céline Le Bourdais and Nicole Marcil-Gratton (with Heather Juby) presenteda paper «Vie familiale dans un contexte d'incertitude conjugale etéconomique» in the conference held in Ottawa on June 4-5.

Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association 2001Annual Meeting

Don Kerr and Rod Beaujot presented their paper ChildPoverty and Family Structure in Canada, 1981-1997 at the meeting held atLaval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec City on May 27-30.

CanadianPopulation Society 2001 Annual Meeting

The following project-related papers were presented at the 2001 AnnualMeeting of the CPS held at Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec City on May 27-29:

Contact with Children After Parental Separation: The Father's Perspective
Céline Le Bourdais, Heather Juby, and Nicole Marcil-GrattonYouth Integration, Social Cohesion, and Social Capital: An Analysis of the General Social Surveys on Time Use
Zenaida R. Ravanera, Fernando Rajulton, and Pierre TurcotteIndicators of Family Change and Social Cohesion
Fernando Rajulton

Association Canadienne Francaise pourl'Avancement des Sciences.

Céline Le Bourdais (with Benoît Rapoport) presented a paper "Tempsparental, formes familiales et horaires de travail" in the annual meetingheld at Sherbrooke, Quebec on May 15-17.

To read the paper or view the transparencies, click on:

Temps parental et formes familiales (paper)Temps parental, formes familiales et horaires de travail (transparencies)

Third International Amsterdam Conference on Multi-level Analysis

At this conference held on April 9 -10, 2001, Rajulton Fernando and ZenaidaR. Ravanera presented two papers:  (1) Community Characteristics and FamilySupport in Canada and (2) Multi-level Influences on Early Life Transitions ofCanadian Youth (with Thomas K. Burch).

While in Europe, Rajulton Fernando also gave two other presentations:

Family Support in Canada to the staff and students of the Research Project on Life Courses in the Globalization Process at the University of Bielefeld in Germany, and LIFEHIST: New Features of the Windows Version, his software package for analysisof event histories, at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.

Population Association of America2001 Annual Meeting

In this year's meeting held in Washington, D.C. on March 28-31,  the following papers were presented by project team members:

A StepFurther: Parenthood in Blended Families
Céline Le Bourdais and Nicole Marcil-Gratton (with Heather Juby)

An extended version of this paper, entitled The Emergence of the Blended Family has been accepted for publication in: Statistics Canada: Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada – 2000 Catalogue: 91-209.

Moving In and Out of Lone Parenthood
Pierre Turcotte, Celine Le Bourdais, Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, (with Pascale Beaupre)

International Perspectives on Low Fertility: Trends,Theories, and Policies

Rod Beaujot presented the paper (co-authored by Alain Belanger)  Perspectiveson Below Replacement Fertility in Canada: Trends, Desires, and Accommodationsat the meeting of the IUSSP Working Group on Low Fertility held in Tokyo, March 21-23, 2001.

Population Studies Centre Colloquium Series

In the regular colloquium series attended by professors and graduate studentsat the Population Studies Centre of the University of Western Ontario, Zenaida Ravanera discussed "Family Change and Dimensions of Social Cohesion"on March 9 and Fernando Rajulton gave a talk on "Intergenerational Supportand Family Cohesion" on March 23.

Colloque Visions de la famille

Céline Le Bourdais and Nicole Marcil-Grattonpresented a paper «La remise en question du lien parent/enfant dans un contextede mobilité conjugale» in the conference organized by «Familles en mouvanceet dynamiques intergénérationnelles» on the theme Les conceptions de lapaternité, de la maternité et de la famille et leurs ancrages dans les savoirset l'expérience. This was held in Montréal in February.

HaveFactors of Social Inclusiveness Changed?

The Centre de recherche inter-universitaire sur les transformations et lesrégulations économiques et sociales (CRITÉRES) and the Policy ResearchSecretariat organized a conference entitled "Have the Factors ofSocial Inclusiveness Changed?" on February 22, 2001 at the Université deMontréal. The Conference consisted of three sessions:

Social Inclusiveness: What Does This Entail? Why Now? Social Inclusiveness: Basis and Factors How Should Social Inclusiveness Be Promoted?

Zenaida R. Ravanera participated in the conference and talked about "Family Transformation and Social Inclusion" in the session on Social Inclusiveness: Basis and Factors.

To view the presentation or read the paper on which the talk was based pleaseclick on:

Family Transformation and Social Inclusion (A PowerPoint presentation)

Beaujot, R. and Z. R. Ravanera. 2001. An Interpretation of Family Change, With Implications for Social Cohesion.

Principal Investigator:

Roderic P. Beaujot, Professor Emeritus
Leader, Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster

Roderic Beaujot
  • Demographics and implications for social policy

rbeaujot@uwo.ca
519-661-2111 x83689
SSC 5212
office hours: by appointment
Faculty Profile

Co-Investigators:

Danièle Bélanger
former Canada Research Chair in Population, Gender and Development, Department of Sociology, Western

Danièle Bélanger
  • lives of women in developing countries, such as Vietnam and China
  • effects of globalization and migration opportunities on poor women and their families

now at Université Laval:
Faculté de foresterie, de géographie et de géomatique
418 656-2131 poste 8458

Thomas K. Burch, Professor Emeritus

Thomas K. Burch
  • demography
  • Marriage, Family, and Household
  • Computer simulation and statistical modelling

tkburch@uvic.ca
250-472-4714
University of Victoria

Profile at U. Victoria

Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Professeure émérite, Département de démographie, Université de Montréal

  • Famille
  • Mariage et union libre
  • Fécondité
  • Politiques familiales
  • Québec – Canada

Céline Le Bourdais, Professor, Sociology, McGill Canada Research Chair in Social Statistics and Family Change

  • Family change
  • conjugal histories
  • fatherhood
  • fertility
  • work and family balance
  • longitudinal analysis
  • family policy

celine.lebourdais@mcgill.ca
514-398-6840
McGill University

Nicole Marcil-Gratton, retired Agente de recherche Département de démographie, Université de Montréal

  • contraception
  • family issues
  • aging

 

Kevin McQuillan, Professor Emeritus

Kevin McQuillan
  • Historical Demography, Historical Sociology
  • Demography of the Family
  • Social Change and Development

kevinmcq@ucalgary.ca
(403) 220-2744
SSC 5327
U. Calgary bio

Rajulton Fernando, Professor Emeritus

Rajulton Fernando
  • demography
  • fertility, mortality, migration
  • family life histories

fernando@uwo.ca
SSC 5210

Collaborators:

Ron Lesthaeghe, Professor Emeritus, Free University of Brussels

  • populations of Europe and of sub-Saharan Africa
  • cultural change in Europe
  • ethnic minorities
  • Second Demographic Transition
  • formation/dissolution of unions and marital/non-marital fertility behavior

Guy Moors, Assistant Professor,
Department of Methodology and Statistics, Tilburg University

  • Cross-cultural research
  • Demography

guy.moors@tilburguniversity.edu
+31 13 466 2249
Tilburg University

Derrick Thomas, Sociologist
Statistics Canada

  • Demography

 

Pierre Turcotte, Demographer
Statistics Canada

  • Demography

 

Research Associates

Partners

(main contact person is bolded)

Conseil de la famille et de l'enfance, Quebec: Nicole Boily, President; Jean-Pierre Lamoureux
Vanier Institute of the Family: Robert Glossop, Executive Director of Programs
Canadian Policy Research Networks: Judith Maxwell, President; Sharon Stroick
Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics: Doug Norris, Director
Policy Research Secretariate: Laura Chapman, Executive Director; Michael MacKinnon; Jeff Franks
Department of Justice, Child Support Team: Dorothy Hepworth, Coordinator; Louise Savage
Children`s Secretariate, Ontario: Heather Martin, Mark Woollard, Mark Trumpour
Human Resources Development Canada, Income Security and Social Development: Allen Zeesman, Director